Indigenous Prosperity and American Conquest

Indian Women of the Ohio River Valley, 1690-1792

By Susan Sleeper-Smith

376 pp., 6.125 x 9.25, 32 halftones, 16 maps, 4 tables

  • Paperback ISBN: 978-1-4696-5916-9
    Published: February 2020
  • Hardcover ISBN: 978-1-4696-4058-7
    Published: June 2018
  • eBook ISBN: 978-1-4696-4059-4
    Published: May 2018

Published by the Omohundro Institute of Early American History and Culture and the University of North Carolina Press

Paperback Available February 2020, but pre-order your copy today!

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Published by the Omohundro Institute of Early American History and Culture and the University of North Carolina Press

Awards & distinctions

Honorable Mention, 2019 Ray Allen Billington Prize, Organization of American Historians

Indigenous Prosperity and American Conquest recovers the agrarian village world Indian women created in the lush lands of the Ohio Valley. Algonquian-speaking Indians living in a crescent of towns along the Wabash tributary of the Ohio were able to evade and survive the Iroquois onslaught of the seventeenth century, to absorb French traders and Indigenous refugees, to export peltry, and to harvest riparian, wetland, and terrestrial resources of every description and breathtaking richness. These prosperous Native communities frustrated French and British imperial designs, controlled the Ohio Valley, and confederated when faced with the challenge of American invasion.

By the late eighteenth century, Montreal silversmiths were sending their best work to Wabash Indian villages, Ohio Indian women were setting the fashions for Indigenous clothing, and European visitors were marveling at the sturdy homes and generous hospitality of trading entrepôts such as Miamitown. Confederacy, agrarian abundance, and nascent urbanity were, however, both too much and not enough. Kentucky settlers and American leaders—like George Washington and Henry Knox—coveted Indian lands and targeted the Indian women who worked them. Americans took women and children hostage to coerce male warriors to come to the treaty table to cede their homelands. Appalachian squatters, aspiring land barons, and ambitious generals invaded this settled agrarian world, burned crops, looted towns, and erased evidence of Ohio Indian achievement. This book restores the Ohio River valley as Native space.

About the Author

Susan Sleeper-Smith is professor of history at Michigan State University. She has authored one previous book and edited four essay volumes.
For more information about Susan Sleeper-Smith, visit the Author Page.


“Compelling . . . Offers a highly readable account of vital women’s roles in the widespread Indian settlements of the Ohio River valley.”--Journal of American History

“Clearly written, well researched, and intellectually engaging. . . . Not only does the author restore the voices of Indigenous women . . . she also challenges persuasively the master narrative that has justified the excesses of American expansion.”--Western Historical Quarterly

“Susan Sleeper-Smith’s pioneering research on the fur trade and American Indian women has proved to be . . . influential. Her new book builds on her expertise with impressive interdisciplinary research, evocative writing, and ambitious sweep.”--Journal of Southern History

“Long-awaited. . . . Sleeper-Smith’s important new work reminds us how much our historical knowledge relies on unexamined non-Native assumptions about Native gender constructions and how very differently Native history appears when Native constructions of gender are employed in their stead.”--American Historical Review

"In overlooking the vital role of women in creating and sustaining Ohio Valley Indians' rich agricultural system, historians have ignored what George Washington knew all too well. Starting with his 1791 order to imprison Indian women and children, Susan Sleeper-Smith uncovers the productive village life that supported prosperous commerce with colonial traders and enabled resistance to U.S. encroachment. In-depth archival research, careful attention to Indigenous knowledge, and innovative use of environmental evidence make her book a virtuoso interdisciplinary study and a stunning historical revelation."--Daniel H. Usner Jr., Vanderbilt University

"An eye-opening, revisionist exposé of American expansion, Indigenous Prosperity and American Conquest lucidly narrates how the Ohio River valley's thriving Native world of agricultural productivity, fur-trading acumen, and lavish material culture fell victim to a covetous, militant aggression as Americans took possession."--Nancy Shoemaker, University of Connecticut